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Citizen Scientists Can Make an Important Contribution There are many actions that can be taken to improve the precision of our models, but the most obvious is to increase spatial and temporal density of our observations.
However, the cost of oceanographic research vessels makes this impractical. The inevitable conclusion is that observations must be obtained by some other means. We propose a worldwide effort to empower sailors and retrofit sailboats to increase coverage of sample and data collection along common routes around the world.
Modern oceanographic research vessels are large and expensive because they are designed to be general-purpose scientific platforms. They are sophisticated laboratory facilities that serve the diverse needs of the scientific community for many decades. These vessels are costly because their scientific capabilities are both wide ranging and deep penetrating.
The ocean is too vast for any vessel to see very much of it, no matter its capabilities. Maximizing the number of observers, rather than the capabilities of observers, requires a very different approach to the choice of vessel, personnel, instrumentation, and protocol. Can meaningful data be collected with the kind of narrowly focused, low-cost instrumentation that is easily mass produced and deployable?
If so, what vessels will carry it, and what personnel will operate it? Many aspects of modern oceanography, such as locating an underwater object, require sophisticated equipment and trained experts. However, some of the most important types of observations require only that one be in the right place at the right time with simple instrumentation or sampling equipment.
Important data can be gathered by anyone who can follow basic instructions. Rather than dispatching scientists into the environment to collect data, scientists may instead train people who already interact with the environment to apply the scientific method to phenomena they already observe.
With or without an invitation, citizen scientists exist. There is an urgent need to make a place for them in the scientific community. Box 1. Citizen Science Primer Citizen science is a manner of collecting data and observations in which collaborators who may lack credentials and formal institutional affiliation can contribute to the work.
Because one does not vet collaborators on the basis of affiliation and credentials, a citizen science research project must be specific and self-contained in terms of what is asked of collaborators. For example, rather than requiring a master's degree in entomology, a citizen science project might ask if a candidate can learn to identify a particular species of ant using a dichotomous key.
Historical Perspective A mistaken and modern perception is that science is an elitist profession, relegated to well-funded laboratories with complex instrumentation run by professors with years of advanced education. Historically, this was not always the case. In fact, people who conducted scientific research as a hobby achieved some of the greatest discoveries in history. For example, Leonardo da Vinci painted portraits for income while doing science in his spare time.
Gregor Mendel, an Augustinian friar, discovered the basis of genetic inheritance while working in the garden of his monastery, and Michael Faraday laid the foundation of electromagnetic induction while working as an apprentice bookbinder and bookseller, educating himself.
He detailed the geology and formation of coral reefs during the — voyage of HMS Beagle. Despite this long tradition, the involvement of amateurs in oceanographic discoveries declined in the 20th century, perhaps contributing to the growing misunderstanding of scientific jargon by the public when it pertains to ocean and atmospheric circulation. Kindle Edition Verified download.
Only on Kindle, which is the worst book app if you want to view pictures or any other data other than pure text. It's formatted like a novel, and is more of a hindrance than a benefit for anyone trying to obtain information. If you're forced to download it for class Yes, it's THAT bad on kindle. Paperback Verified download. Came on time for class and was required text. My daughter is using this book to prepare for Science Olympiad.
It has been extremely helpful to her. I rented this book for my class, it served its purpose. Some of the text is harder to understand but the book is overall useful. This text requires absolute focus; it is full of charts, diagrams, etc to explain concepts.
Although I have lived next to the ocean in Alaska for more than 40 years, and have been a commercial fisherwoman for 25, this book gave detailed explanations for our Earth; that should be called "Water". I guess this is oceanography, but it lacks soul.
Bought it for class, didn't read it much. The parts I did read were pretty interesting though.
Quality book. One person found this helpful. See all 43 reviews. site Giveaway allows you to run promotional giveaways in order to create buzz, reward your audience, and attract new followers and customers. Learn more about site Giveaway. This item: Invitation to Oceanography. Set up a giveaway.
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Anybody—whether sailor, surfer, beachcomber, or student—can learn about the processes and creatures of the oceans. No background in science is required to grasp the many important ideas that are relevant to the working of the oceans. Many photographs have been added to this new edition. All the drawings have been beautifully and accurately rendered by a team of talented artists and illustrators in order to present in visual form ideas that are at times necessarily abstract.
They should be stud- ied carefully before advancing to the next section of the chapter, because they help provide concreteness to the ideas discussed. This will take a bit of time, but it is time well invested.
This means that the organization of the material, the development of the ideas, and the quality of the prose and illustrations are better than ever. We are always working to improve each succeeding version of the book, and so we welcome all comments and criticisms from our readers.
An imaginary trek across the sea bottom of the North Atlantic Ocean, beginning in New Jersey and ending at the very top of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, is the highlight of Chapter 2 for many readers, including the author. In some sense, the material and concepts in these seven chapters repre- sent the core ideas of the ocean sciences, and when comprehended and synthesized, they provide the frame- work for understanding ocean habitats as whole, functional ecosystems—the chapter topics of the remainder of the book.
For example, Chapters 11 and 12 examine the intriguing intricacies of dynamic coastal environments, including beaches, dunes, barrier islands, estuaries, deltas, salt marshes, mangrove swamps, lagoons, and coral reefs.
Two chapters are devoted to coastal ecosystems, because we are most familiar and come in regular contact with the shoreline rather than the open ocean. Chapter 15 presents a balanced appraisal of the environmental stresses brought about by human activ- ity, showing the nature and alarming extent of this impact and providing examples of groups of concerned citizens who are striving hard and successfully to reverse environmental despoilment.
Throughout the book, local and regional examples are drawn from all parts of the U. Examples from foreign seas are used where appropriate. Chapter 16, a new addition to the book, examines a most timely global issue—climate change. How will warming of the atmosphere and oceans affect the processes and biodiversity of marine ecosystems? The site also includes math tutorials and critical thinking exercises. These Web sites, run by research institutes, scientists, educational programs, and government agencies reinforce and enhance the topics in the book.
The Math Tutor icon means that Tools for Learning has an area in which the author, Paul Pinet, patiently guides the student through the mathematical solving process without giving away the answer. OceanLink offers various Web links and activities to make the study of oceanography more current and more enjoyable.
In addition to the areas described above, OceanLink has an on-line glossary and links to sites offering the latest oceanography news.
For links to other sites, we provide a brief description to place the link in context before the student connects to the site. Jones and Bartlett Publishers constantly monitors the links to ensure there will always be a working and appropriate site on-line. The boxes serve several purposes. Some review com- mon research techniques employed by oceanographers to investigate the seas.
A few featured boxes review a concept that is simply interesting, and that otherwise could not be integrated easily into the main text of the chapter. Enjoy them! Six new boxes have been added to this edition.
Here is a list of each box in the book and where each appears in the respective chapters. Chapter 1 Science by Numbers: The Megatsunami of December 26, Chapter 8 Physics: Chapter 15 Biology: The questions address the main notions developed in the chapter. The second set, the Critical Thinking Essays, requires more thought because you must synthesize ideas, sometimes drawing from concepts developed in previous chapters.
In other words, verbatim answers might not be found anywhere in the book. However, you can develop an answer by thinking deeply about the question posed and applying common sense and logic to the information provided in the book.
The third set of questions, Discovering with Numbers, deals with making straightforward calculations about ocean processes. The questions rely on basic mathemat- ics, the kind that any high-school graduate has mastered. In order to assist you, math boxes called Science by Numbers teach the art of computation and are included in most chapters.
The trick to answering math questions is to understand conceptually what it is you are trying to solve. These math boxes will help you upgrade your math skills and develop self-assurance about reasoning with numbers. With the proper learn- ing attitude, the math problems actually become fun to solve and provide the insights into ocean processes that only numerical calculations reveal.
A reading list is provided at the end of each chapter and includes both classical, but still relevant, references and more recent writings on the ocean's dynamic processes and diverse habitats. Some are books; most are articles. They should prove valuable for delving deeper into an area of oceanography that intrigues you and for writing term papers. Over 90 new reference citations have been added to this edition of the book. Additional information and review copies of any of the following items are available through your Jones and Bartlett Sales Representative.
With the Microsoft PowerPoint viewer, you can quickly and easily copy individual images or tables into your exist- ing lecture slides. The PowerPoint Lecture Outline Slides presentation package provides lecture notes, graphs, and images for each chapter of Invitation to Oceanography.
Instructors with the Microsoft PowerPoint software can customize the outlines, images, and order of presentation. The Test Bank, prepared by Grant A. Many of the labs are group-based activities that demonstrate principles typically discussed in lecture. The exercises require just minimal knowledge of science and math. Jones and Bartlett makes the Laboratory Exercises available with the text, or it can be downloadd separately. During my long association with these professionals, I was impressed by their patience, their creativity, their willingness to listen carefully and critically to my perspectives, and their attentive concern for visual and written aesthetics.
The outcome of our collaborative effort is what you have in front of you. Also, Shoshanna Goldberg, who was recently promoted, was instrumental in getting this version of the book under- way. A textbook of this ilk succeeds only if there is a dynamic balance among syntheses, coverage, and details, which was achievable because of our collabora- tive effort. I am truly privileged to be working as an author with Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Paul R. Pinet Hamilton, New York Many colleagues at numerous institutions reviewed and constructively criticized drafts of the various editions, vastly improving their quality. Those who were particularly helpful and generous with their time and expertise over the years include: Browne Rider University William H. Chauffe St. Louis University G. Dexter University of Delaware Charles M. Drake Dartmouth College Walter C. Hinds Slippery Rock University www.
Meyer Winona State University A. Richardson U. The record stretches back over several millennia to the time when ancient mariners built boats and ventured boldly onto the sea to explore the unknown. Knowledge that is commonplace today The Growth of Oceanography 1 1 What is the sense of owning a good boat if you hang around in home waters?
Before delving into the science of oceanogra- phy, we should understand exactly what the word means. The second part of the term comes from the Greek word graphia, which refers to the act of recording and describing. The word oceanology has not, however, displaced oceanography, because the latter term is solidly entrenched in the minds of the laypeople as well as the Western practitioners of the science.
Many intended to become rich by exploiting resources and by controlling sea routes for commerce. All were driven by a yearning to understand the mysteries of the Earth and its seas. They owe a huge debt to the courage and vision of earlier mariners, who by slow increments replaced ignorance and myth with knowledge. Marine studies com- monly rely on collaboration among many types of scientists, mathematicians, engineers, techni- cians, and policymakers.
Although this book stresses the most current ideas championed by marine scien- tists, these attitudes and impressions did not sud- denly appear out of an intellectual vacuum. They grew out of—and evolved from—the ideas and deductions of prior generations of ocean explorers and scientists. Marine scientists are well aware of the fact that all of their work rests on the contri- butions of the innumerable investigators that came before them.
But, obviously, this does not mean that all the conclusions of those early inves- tigators have been validated. The lesson from history is clear-cut.
The history of oceanography has not always been the gradual and systematic development of a body of thought. Rather, bold concepts and opin- ions have often burst onto the scene, necessitating critical reexamination of the wisdom of the past, and stimulating fresh insights into the workings of the oceans.
A practical means of organizing the historical record of oceanography is to arrange the events into three broad stages. During this time of ocean exploration, www.
This diagram organizes oceanography into four principal categories—biological, geological, physical, and chemi- cal oceanography—that are linked to one another by cross-disciplines. The third covers the growth of modern oceanography that has resulted from the wide- spread application of state-of-the-art technology and the international collaboration of scientists. A limited number of the innumerable events that contribute to the rich history of oceanography can be highlighted in a single chapter.
Although the details of only a few of the many important research cruises and studies are elaborated here, synopses of many others are cataloged chronologically in Table 1—1.
Also, books that discuss the historical context of ocean exploration and the science of oceanography are listed at the end of the chapter. Anthropologists suspect, for exam- ple, that the ancestors of aboriginal people reached Australia by sea-going vessels some 40, to 60, years ago, an incredible feat requiring courage, skill, and determination.
They lived through a glaciation and deglaciation, following the shoreline as sea level dropped and then rose to its present position. These events are recorded in their powerful myths and art. Their canoes, which they sailed and paddled, were made by hollowing out logs or by lashing planking together with braided ropes.
These seaworthy vessels were built with simple tools made of rock, bone, and coral. Polynesian seafarers could depend on accurate, detailed lore of local wind, wave, current, and weather patterns as well as on the position of key navigational stars in mak- ing a planned landfall after a deep-sea crossing of hundreds, even thousands, of kilometers.
The ability to explore and chart the seas safely depends on navigation. Records of sailing vessels indicate maritime activity in Egypt as far back as B. It is likely that the extent of these voy- ages was restricted, with mariners remaining well in sight of land, probably in the immediate vicinity of the Nile River and the shores of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. By the sixth century B.